Echocardiographic examination

EN / SK

TECHmED.sk

New examination
Left ventricle
LV diastolic function
Right ventricle
RV pressure
Kinetics and effusion
Atria and IVC
Aorta
AV
MV
TV
PV
Summary
Values
Views

Echocardiographic examination

TECHmED.sk

New
LV
LV diastole
RV
RV pressure
Kinetics
Atria
Aorta
AV
MV
TV
PV
Summary
Values
Views

Left ventricle

LVIDs (Left ventricular internal dimension at end-systole) Parasternal long axis (PLAX), systole

LVIDs

Left ventricular internal dimension at end-systole

LVIDd (Left ventricular internal dimension at end-diastole) Parasternal long axis (PLAX), diastole

LVIDd

Left ventricular internal dimension at end-diastole

IVSd (Interventricular septum thickness at end-diastole) Parasternal long axis (PLAX), diastole

IVSd

Interventricular septum thickness at end-diastole

PWd (Left ventricular posterior wall thickness at end -diastole) Parasternal long axis (PLAX), diastole

PWd

Left ventricular posterior wall thickness at end-diastole

RWT (Relative wall thickness) Parasternal long axis (PLAX), diastole

RWT

Relative wall thickness

LV mass (Left ventricular mass) Parasternal long axis (PLAX), diastole

LV mass

Left ventricular mass

LVEDV (Left ventricular end-diastole volume) Apical 4 Chamber View (A4C), diastole

LVEDV

Left ventricular end-diastole volume

LVESV (Left ventricular end-systole volume) Apical 4 Chamber View (A4C), systole

LVESV

Left ventricular end-systole volume

LVEDV (Left ventricular end-diastole volume) LVESV (Left ventricular end-systole volume)

LV EF

Left ventricular ejection fraction (Biplane Method of Discs)

LVEDV (Left ventricular end-diastole volume) Left ventricle geometry (LVIDd, IVSd, PWd)

Left ventricular geometry

Left ventricular geometry

References:

Recommendations for Cardiac Chamber Quantification by Echocardiography in Adults: An Update from the ASE and EACVI (2015)

Recommendations for the Evaluation of LV Diastolic Function by Echocardiography: An Update from the ASE and EACVI (2016)

Recommendations on the use of echocardiography in adult hypertension: a report from the EACVI and the ASE (2015)

Recommendations on the Echocardiographic Assessment of Aortic Valve Stenosis: A Focused Update from the EACVI and the ASE (2017)

ASE Recommendations for Noninvasive Evaluation of Native Valvular Regurgitation (2017)

Guidelines for performing a comprehensive TTE examination in adults: Recommendations from the ASE (2018)

Guidelines for the Echocardiographic Assessment of the Right Heart in Adults: ASE, EACVI, ESC, CSE (2010)

Guidelines for the diagnosis and management of acute pulmonary embolism ESC, ERS (2019)

Echocardiography in aortic diseases: EAE recommendations for clinical practice (2010)

Echocardiographic assessment of valve stenosis: EAE/ASE recommendations for clinical practice (2009)

ESSENTIAL ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY A Companion to Braunwald’s Heart Disease

Coronary Artery Territories (Echocardiography Illustrated Book 4)

Basic parameters

LVIDs
cm
cm/m2

Left ventricular internal dimension at end-systole

LVIDd
cm
cm/m2

Left ventricular internal dimension at end-diastole

IVSd
cm

Interventricular septum thickness at end-diastole

PWd
cm

Left ventricular posterior wall thickness at end-diastole

RWT

Relative wall thickness
RWT = (2 x PWd) / LVIDd

LV mass
g
g/m2

Left ventricular mass
LV mass = 0.8 x1.04 x[(IVSd+LVIDd+PWd)3 - LVIDd3]+0.6

EF and LV geometry

LVEDV
ml
ml/m2

Left ventricular end-diastole volume (Biplane)

LVESV
ml
ml/m2

Left ventricular end-systole volume (Biplane)

LV EF
%

Left ventricular ejection fraction (Biplane)
LV EF = (LVEDV - LVESV) / LVEDV x 100

Left ventricular geometry

(LVEDV, LV mass, RWT)

LVIDs (Left ventricular internal dimension at end-systole) Parasternal long axis (PLAX), systole

LVIDs

Left ventricular internal dimension at end-systole

  • PLAX (Parasternal long axis).
  • End-systole (ECG: The end of T wave).
  • Measure perpendicular to the long axis of the LV, at or immediately below the level of the mitral valve leaflet tips.
Left ventricle (Size)
Male Female
Normal
range
Mildly
abnormal
Moderately
abnormal
Severely
abnormal
Normal
range
Mildly
abnormal
Moderately
abnormal
Severely
abnormal
LVIDd (cm)

Left ventricular internal dimension at end-diastole

4,2 - 5,8 5,9 - 6,3 6,4 - 6,8 >6,8 3,8 - 5,2 5,3 - 5,6 5,7 - 6,1 >6,1
LVIDd (cm/m2)

Left ventricular internal dimension at end-diastole

2,2 - 3,0 3,1 - 3,3 3,4 - 3,6 >3,6 2,3 - 3,1 3,2 - 3,4 3,5 - 3,7 >3,7
LVIDs (cm)

Left ventricular internal dimension at end-systole

2,5 - 4,0 4,1 -  4,3 4,4 - 4,5 >4,5 2,2 - 3,5 3,6 - 3,8 3,9 - 4,1 >4,1
LVIDs (cm/m2)

Left ventricular internal dimension at end-systole

1,3 - 2,1 2,2 - 2,3 2,4 - 2,5 >2,5 1,3 - 2,1 2,2 - 2,3 2,4 - 2,6 >2,6
IVSd (cm)

Interventricular septum thickness at end-diastole

0,6 - 1,0 1,1 - 1,3 1,4 - 1,6 >1,6 0,6 - 0,9 1,0 - 1,2 1,3 - 1,5 >1,5
PWd (cm)

Left ventricular posterior wall thickness at end-diastole

0,6 - 1,0 1,1 - 1,3 1,4 - 1,6 >1,6 0,6 - 0,9 1,0 - 1,2 1,3 - 1,5 >1,5
RWT

Relative wall thickness

0,24 - 0,42 0,43 - 0,46 0,47 - 0,51 >0,52 0,22 - 0,42 0,43 - 0,47 0,48 - 0,52 >0,53